Kaliningrad is a seaport city and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea.
In the Middle Ages, the locality was the site of the ancient Old Prussian settlement and fort Twangste. In 1255, during the Northern Crusades, a new fortress was built on the site by the Teutonic Knights and was named Königsberg in honor of King Ottokar II of Bohemia, who led two crusade expeditions against the pagan Old Prussians. The town was successively part of the monastic State of the Teutonic Order, enfeoffed to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, then part of Prussia and Germany. The city was heavily damaged during World War II. Its ruins were occupied by the Red Army on 9 April 1945, and what remained of the German population fled or was later removed by force. It became a Russian city and was renamed Kaliningrad on July 4, 1946,
According to the 2010 Census, its population was 431,902
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